As a result of the United Nations Conference that began in April 1945, the United Nations itself came into being in October of the same year. At that time, 51 nations ratified the U.N. charter. The principal purpose of the United Nations was to "save succeeding generations from the scourge of war;" develop friendly relations among states; cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems; and promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. To enable it to work toward its goals, the U.N. was established with six major organs: Security Council, General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat. Moreover, a number of specialized agencies were attached to the U.N. system to deal with specific international problems.