The Monarch butterfly is one the most readily recognized and beloved insects in North America. With its vivid orange and black markings and often bold behavior around people, it seldom fails to create a smile on the face of those who see it. Females have thicker veins and no dots. The dot is a scent gland. Males use the pheromones produced by this gland to make themselves attractive to females. As a butterfly caterpillar grows it must molt its skin. Each stage between molts is called an instar. The chrysalis, or pupal skin, of the Monarch is strikingly beautiful. It is vivid jade green with little golden bumps, particularly in the horizontal line visible about one third of the way down from the top of the pupa. In the final day or two before emergence, the chrysalis becomes transparent, allowing one to see the orange and black wings beneath.