Dr. Crawford Long may have been the first physician to use ether as an anesthetic during surgical procedures. He first used ether in March 1842 on James Venable, who had not been willing to undergo surgery to remove two tumors on his neck. The operation was successful, and Dr. Long continued his study. Over the next four years he used ether several more times before publishing his findings in 1849. The early history of the introduction of ether anesthesia in America was the subject of considerable controversy.