The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established on April 4, 1949, by representatives of 12 nations: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Late joiners were Germany, Greece, Spain, and Turkey. The member nations all have signed the treaty, which had at its purpose the deterring of potential Soviet aggression in Europe. Key to the treaty is Article 5: "The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of then ... shall be considered an attack against them all." North Atlantic Council is the chief policy-making body of NATO. It meets in Brussels and provides for intergovernmental consultation. Each participating country provides a permanent representative of ambassadorial level, a group which meets weekly.