Francisco Vazquez de Coronado crossed the western part of Oklahoma in 1541. French trader Auguste Pierre Chouteau established the first permanent settlement, now Salina, in 1817. After the Louisiana Purchase, the area was explored by traders. President Andrew Jackson's policy of Indian "consolidation" began, following the ceding of lands by the Osage and Quapaw tribes.
Series of negotiations led to the Indian Territory, in which the Five Civilized Tribes organized representatives governments, established towns, and developed farms and business. The Civil War disrupted such development. Among the lands assigned to the Indians were various "unassigned" lands. On April 22, 1889, the "run" method to claim plots in the unassigned areas.
The Unassigned Lands officially was officially designated Oklahoma Territory on May 2, 1890. With the establishment of the territory status and the sudden increase in population came increased pressure for statehood. At the same time, settlers demanded that the Indians be confined to certain areas and that the remainder be opened to homesteading. Allotment of Indian lands began on April 1, 1899, and was not completed until 1910. By that time the two halves of Oklahoma had been joined in statehood, which happened on November 16, 1907.
Since statehood, Oklahoma has changed from a rural to an urban state, from an economy based on agriculture to one based on industry. Oklahoma has become an important center for military activities. Petroleum products remain important.