Chief of the Nez Perce Indian tribe, Chief Joseph is remembered for his leadership during the conflict between his tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. Under provisions of the Stevens Treaty of 1855, the Nez Perce agreed to cede much of their land to the U.S. government in return for the guarantee of a large reservation in Oregon and Idaho. Gold was discovered in Oregon in 1863, and the government demanded that the Nez Perce relinquish that part of the reservation also. Fighting broke out in 1877 when young warriors retaliated for actions by white settlers. Chief Joseph showed skill in military tactics by defeating larger U.S. forces in several battles. He then led his people on a retreat of more than 1,000 miles, but was overtaken by federal troops only 48 miles from the Canadian border. He surrendered with his decimated group.