Educated in France, John J. Audubon was an ornithologist, noted for his drawings and paintings of birds. After first experimenting with migration and bird-banding from the family estate near Philadelphia, he moved to art. He earned a living as a portrait painter and for a short time taught drawing in New Orleans. Parts of his folio, The Birds of America, were printed between 1827 and 1838 by a Scottish publisher. The text, Ornithological Biography, came out in five volumes between 1831 and 1839. Scottish naturalist William MacGillivray collaborated with Audubon on the text and provided much of the scientific data. By 1838, Audubon had completed more than 400 paintings.