In three centuries, what is now the United States went from zero population to more than two hundred million. In the same period, the Native American population dropped by more than half. The Northwest Territory Ordinance of 1787 provided that "their lands and property shall never be taken from them without their consent." The Indian Removal Act of 1830 changed the policy substantially. During Thomas Jefferson's first administration, more Native American land was taken than under any other president. Even with promises from Jefferson, traders and land speculators used alcohol and cheap items for trade to take land.